Thursday, May 31, 2018

Diabetes patients take steps towards better management

Diabetes don’t meet the standards for aerobic and resistance exercise, in fact, the physical activity has declined in over the last 40 years. 
For patients with diabetes, physical activity is vital because it:
Reduces diabetes incidence by 60%.
Is as effective as blood glucose medication with less side effects.To start, patients can do 30 minutes of aerobic exercise 5 days per week.

Atezolizumab doubles 3-year survival rate vs docetaxel in NSCLC

Even in the long term, atezolizumab shows significant survival benefit over docetaxel for patients with advanced non-small–cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have previously been treated, regardless of PD-L1 expression levels or tumour histology, according to the POPLAR study presented at the 2018 European Lung Cancer Congress (ELCC).

Pembrolizumab-chemo combo improves survival in metastatic NSCLC

The addition of pembrolizumab to a pemetrexed-platinum chemotherapy regimen improved overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), findings from the phase III KEYNOTE-189* trial show.

RSV prevention in infancy has minimal impact on asthma in early childhood

Prophylaxis for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in healthy preterm infants reduced their risk of parent-reported (but not physician-diagnosed) asthma at age 6 years, with no apparent effect on lung function, according to follow-up results of the MAKI* study.

High-flow oxygen therapy reduces the need for escalation of care in infants with bronchiolitis

The use of high-flow oxygen therapy may reduce the need for escalation of care in infants with bronchiolitis compared with standard oxygen therapy, according to a recent study.

Certain asthma medication tied to infertility in women

Managing asthma with short-acting β-agonists (SABAs) was associated with reduced fertility in women, while the use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) with or without long-acting β-agonists (LABAs) was not, according to the SCOPE* study.

New ESC syncope guidelines stratify patients who may be discharged from the ED safely

An algorithm to help stratify patients with syncope requiring hospitalization vs those that can be discharged from the emergency department (ED) safely forms part of the new European Society Cardiology (ESC) syncope guidelines launched at the EHRA 2018 meeting.

Stand up and walk – prolonged sitting may thin the brain

Prolonged sitting in middle age is tied to brain thinning, a new study has shown.

Add-on antipsychotic improves PTSD, quells anxiety

Adding the atypical antipsychotic risperidone to standard antidepressant therapy significantly improves outcomes in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a meta-analysis has shown.

CGM cost-effective in T1D patients on daily insulin injections

The use of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) may be cost-effective in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) receiving daily multiple insulin injections, the *DIAMOND trial has shown.

Tai Chi may improve health status of COPD patients

Tai Chi may be equivalent to pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in improving health status of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a recent study shows.

Synthetic androgen shows promise as male birth control pill

The investigational oral synthetic androgen dimethandrolone undecanoate (DMAU) suppresses serum testosterone levels to near castrate levels and appears safe when taken once daily for a month, showing potential as a male contraceptive pill, according to a study.

Monday, May 28, 2018

Alcohol-related cirrhosis patients sicker, women disproportionately affected

Of more than 100 million privately insured people surveyed, more than one-third of cirrhosis cases can be attributed to alcohol, reveals a new study. 

High-normal levels of bilirubin linked to lower rates of heart disease

Persons with blood bilirubin levels in the higher range of normal have lower rates of heart failure, myocardial infarction and stroke in patients with or without HIV infection, reveals a new large-scale study.

Low-dose levothyroxine can lower intrahepatic lipid in patients with NAFLD + T2D

Treatment with the synthetic thyroid hormone (TH) levothyroxine can decrease intrahepatic lipid content (IHLC) in patients with nonalchoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), especially in older patients, a recent study found.

Obesity in children linked to early liver damage

Bigger waist circumference in children aged 3 increases the risk that they will have markers for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by the age of 8, a new study reveals. 

Plant-based foods protective against diabetes in lean Asians

Adopting a vegetarian dietary pattern confers significant benefits for diabetes in Asian populations, independent of body mass index (BMI), a Taiwan study has shown.

Fenofibrate reduces gout risk in T2D

Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) experienced reductions in plasma uric acid concentrations and subsequently, fewer gout events following treatment with fenofibrate, according to a post hoc analysis of the FIELD* trial.

High fish intake tied to lower MS risk

High intake of fish enriched with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) combined with fish oil supplements were associated with a lower risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS), according to the MS Sunshine Study presented at the AAN 2018 Annual Meeting.

First reversal agent for factor Xa inhibitors gains FDA nod

Andexanet alfa, a recombinant modified human factor Xa decoy protein, has just been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as the first reversal agent for the anticoagulant effects of rivaroxaban or apixaban in patients with life-threatening or uncontrolled bleeding.

Folic acid supplements atop antihypertensive may help prevent stroke

Adding folic acid (vitamin B9) to daily treatment of enalapril reduced the risk of the first stroke in Chinese adults with hypertension, especially among those with low platelet count (PLT) and high total homocysteine (tHcy), according to post hoc analysis of the CSPPT.

Tuesday, May 22, 2018

RET inhibitor shows potential in RET-altered solid tumours

The potent and highly selective RET* inhibitor BLU-667 was well-tolerated and exhibited promising clinical activity among patients with advanced, RET-altered solid cancers that progressed despite multikinase inhibitor therapy, according to data presented at AACR 2018.

Netupitant-palonosetron combo + dexamethasone may prevent chemo-induced nausea, vomiting

A single administration of the fixed-dose combination consisting of netupitant plus palonosetron (NEPA) in addition to dexamethasone may be an effective strategy for preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) among breast cancer patients receiving combination chemotherapy consisting of anthracycline and cyclophosphamide (AC), according to results from the GIM15-NEPA* trial presented at EBCC 2018.

Younger breast cancer patients have better quality of life after treatment

Patients diagnosed with breast cancer at a younger age experience fewer disturbances in social well-being after adjuvant chemotherapy, a recent study in Hong Kong has shown

Improved breast cancer-specific survival after double mastectomy in BRCA1 carriers

Undergoing a bilateral risk-reducing mastectomy (BRRM) appears to improve breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) and overall survival (OS) in healthy women who are carriers of the BRCA1 mutation, according to a study from The Netherlands. Conversely, women carrying the BRCA2 mutation had similar BCSS regardless of whether they underwent BRRM or surveillance.  

Neoadjuvant nivolumab shows early promise in resectable NSCLC

The neoadjuvant use of nivolumab in patients with resectable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has shown promising results in a pilot study. 

Nivolumab promising in Asians with recurrent or metastatic NPC

The immune-checkpoint inhibitor nivolumab has demonstrated promising antitumor activity and favorable overall survival (OS) in Asian patients with recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).

Atezolizumab doubles 3-year survival rate vs docetaxel in NSCLC

Even in the long term, atezolizumab shows significant survival benefit over docetaxel for patients with advanced non-small–cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have previously been treated, regardless of PD-L1 expression levels or tumour histology, according to the POPLAR* study presented at the 2018 European Lung Cancer Congress (ELCC).

Monday, May 21, 2018

Depression may impair immunogenicity of measles vaccines in adults

Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) have lower odds of testing seropositive for measles despite previous immunization, according to a study. This suggests that MDD may increase susceptibility to the infection due to impaired maintenance of vaccine-related protection against measles.

GP communication intervention may bolster adolescent HPV vaccination rates

A five-component communication training intervention for primary care physicians appears to improve human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates in adolescents, a recent study found.

High-flow oxygen therapy reduces the need for escalation of care in infants with bronchiolitis

The use of high-flow oxygen therapy may reduce the need for escalation of care in infants with bronchiolitis compared with standard oxygen therapy, according to a recent study.

Shorter antibiotic treatment may increase long-term cellulitis relapse risk

While a 6-day course of flucloxacillin appeared as effective as a 12-day course in curing and reducing short-term risk of relapse among patients hospitalized for cellulitis, the 6-day course led to a greater risk of relapse at 90 days, according to a study from The Netherlands.

Age-old herbal cure reduces vomiting in children with acute gastroenteritis

Ginger, a common Asian cooking ingredient, is effective in treating vomiting in children with acute gastroenteritis, according to a new study.

Bursectomy not superior to omentectomy for resectable gastric cancer

Bursectomy does not appear to confer a significant survival advantage over nonbursectomy surgeries in resectable gastric cancer patients, according to a recent Japan study.

Lower metachronous gastric cancer risk after H. pylori treatment

A South Korean study has shown that patients with early gastric cancer who received Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication therapy were less likely to develop metachronous gastric cancer.

Lower risk of umbilical hernia recurrence with mesh over suture repair

The use of mesh rather than suture repair for small umbilical hernias resulted in fewer hernia recurrences, according to a study from Europe.

Tuesday, May 15, 2018

Benralizumab for treating patients with severe eosinophilic asthma

Benralizumab injection for subcutaneous use has been approved by the US FDA in November 2017 for treating patients with severe eosinophilic asthma.
Benralizumab is a type of monoclonal antibody which is prescribed as an add-on maintenance treatment for treating severe eosinophilic asthma in patients 12 years of age and older.
Benralizumab comes as an injection which is available as a single dose prefilled syringe to be administered subcutaneously or just under the skin.

Monday, May 14, 2018

Substance-induced psychosis may lead to development schizophrenia, bipolar disorder

A robust association exists between substance-induced psychosis and the development of severe mental illness, a recent study has shown, adding that a long follow-up period is warranted to identify most of these cases. 

Risk of suicide following nonfatal attempt high in adolescents, young adults

Adolescents and young adults appear to have a significantly increased risk of suicide following nonfatal self-harm, a study reports. Among this high-risk population, those who have used violent self-harm methods, particular firearms, are at especially greater risk. 

Children born to consanguineous parents more likely to have poor mental health

Children of consanguineous parents appear to be at a higher risk of common mood disorders and psychosis, a recent Ireland study has shown.

Cognitive impairment associated with frailty and increased mortality

Those who are cognitively impaired are more likely to develop frailty after 4 years, leading to impairment in motor activities, delayed recall, poorer quality of life and increased mortality rate, a study in Hong Kong recently showed. 

Conversion disorder associated with stressful life events

A study recently showed that conversion disorder, also known as the functional neurological disorder, is associated with stressful life events and maltreatment.