Monday, August 27, 2018

Certain oral antibiotics tied to increased risk of kidney stones

Exposure to certain oral antibiotics was associated with a greater risk of developing kidney stones, particularly for exposure that occurred recently and at a younger age, reveals a study.

Respiratory infections could affect treatment success in asthma exacerbations

Respiratory infections, particularly influenza, may increase the risk of treatment failure in children with asthma who present to emergency departments (EDs) with exacerbations, a secondary analysis of the DOORWAY* study revealed.

Ageing, nondiabetic HIV-positive individuals prone to insulin resistance

Ageing, nondiabetic, HIV-positive individuals may have a greater tendency to develop insulin resistance than HIV-negative individuals, although their body mass index (BMI) and body fat levels were lower than that of HIV-negative individuals, a study from Thailand found.

Treating chronic HBV with tenofovir disoproxil reduces HCC risk

Individuals who are treated with tenofovir disoproxil for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection have a decreased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), according to a recent study.

Monday, August 13, 2018

Artificial pancreas systems improve glycaemic control in outpatients with type 1 diabetes

Results of a systematic review and meta-analysis have shown that artificial pancreas systems are safe and effective for treating outpatients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), significantly improving glycaemic control while reducing the burden of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia.

Very-low-carb diet may help improve symptoms in T1D

Following a very-low-carbohydrate diet (VLCD) can lead to improved glycaemic control without high rates of acute complications such as ketoacidosis and hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), according to a study based survey data.

Mediterranean diet may lower risk of frailty in older women with T2D

A Mediterranean-style diet pattern appears to reduce the risk of frailty in older women with type 2 diabetes (T2D), suggests a recent study.

CPAP may improve heart rate in patients with OSA, prediabetes

All-night continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment significantly reduced 24-hour (ie, daytime and nighttime) resting heart rate (HR) in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and prediabetes, according to a study presented at ATS 2018 held in San Diego, California, US.

Intensive SBP lowering may increase CKD risk

Intensive systolic blood pressure (SBP) lowering may exert a negative effect on kidney function, particularly in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), according to a secondary analysis of the SPRINT* and ACCORD** trials.

Dapagliflozin drives HbA1c, SBP, and weight down in DERIVE

The use of the sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor dapagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and moderate renal impairment provides benefits beyond glucose lowering, with no new safety signals, in the phase III DERIVE* study.

High job strain raises risk of mental disorders

A high degree of job-related stress appears to significantly predict the risk of developing mental disorders in midlife, according to a recent study.

Resistance training helps fight depressive symptoms

Aside from its physical benefits, resistance exercise training (RET) appears to also produce improvements in depressive symptoms regardless of RET volume and health status, according to a recent meta-analysis.

Behavioural activation and mindfulness practice help prevent depression

Researchers from the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) have recently shown that behavioral activation with mindfulness practice could help prevent depression.

Early intervention services reduce suicide rate in schizophrenia patients

Investigators from the University of Hong Kong (HKU) recently demonstrated that early intervention (EI) services can reduce suicide rates among schizophrenia patients.

Friday, August 3, 2018

Vitamin C improves lung function in babies exposed to in-utero smoke

Vitamin C supplementation in pregnant women who smoke resulted in improved forced expiratory flow (FEF*) in their newborns at 3 and 12 months, according to data presented at ATS 2018.

Long-term PPI tied to higher pneumonia risk in older adults

Long-term proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy was associated with an increased pneumonia risk among older adults, putting to rest the controversies about the validity of previously reported short-term harms of PPIs, according to a large, longitudinal analysis of electronic medical records.

Obesity paradox debunked in COPD patients with BMI >40

The notion that overweight patients with COPD* seems to have a reduced risk of mortality vs those who are of normal weight, or that fat alters outcomes in obese patients – a phenomenon called “obesity paradox” – does not hold true if BMI is >40 kg/m2, a study has shown.

Dropping ICS does not increase exacerbation risk in moderate-to-severe COPD

De-escalating treatment from triple therapy (LABA*/LAMA**/inhaled corticosteroid [ICS]) to dual bronchodilator therapy (indacaterol/glycopyrronium) did not increase exacerbation rate, though there was a minor decrease in lung function in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with infrequent exacerbations, according to results of the SUNSET*** trial presented at the recent American Thoracic Society conference (ATS 2018).

Aclidinium bromide safe for COPD patients at risk of CV events

Aclidinium bromide does not increase the risk of major adverse cardiac event (MACE) in patients with moderate-to-very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who also had significant cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, according to the phase IV ASCENT COPD* study presented at ATS 2018.

Dupilumab cuts steroid use, improves lung function in severe asthma

Dupilumab, the fully human anti-interleukin-4 receptor α monoclonal antibody indicated for the treatment of atopic dermatitis, appeared to improve lung function, reduce exacerbations, and decrease oral corticosteroid use in individuals with moderate-to-severe asthma, according to two phase III trials presented at ATS 2018.

Triple therapy trumps dual therapies in lowering COPD exacerbations

A combined triple therapy comprising fluticasone furoate (an ICS*), umeclidinium (a LAMA**), and vilanterol (a LABA***) in a single inhaler significantly lowers the rate of moderate or severe exacerbations compared with dual therapies of either ICS-LABA or LAMA-LABA in patients with symptomatic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and a history of exacerbations, the IMPACT# study shows.

Congenital heart disease linked to increased risk of dementia

Patients with congenital heart disease are more likely to develop dementia, particularly early-onset dementia, as compared with the general population, according to a study from Denmark.

Patients with resolved AF at similar risk of stroke, TIA to those with ongoing AF

A higher risk of stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) persists in patients with resolved atrial fibrillation (AF) compared with those without AF, reports a new study, adding that such risk is heightened in those in whom recurrent AF is not recorded.

What, how, when of using NOACs in practice

When making practical decision on using non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs), several factors should be considered such as age, renal function, and risk of bleeding, according to a presentation at the APSC Congress 2018.

MRI-guided thrombolysis promising for stroke with unknown time of onset

MRI-guided thrombolysis with alteplase improves outcomes in patients with acute stroke and an unknown time of symptom onset, the WAKE-UP (Efficacy and Safety of MRI-Based Thrombolysis in Wake-Up Stroke) trial has shown.